The Quran was revealed over 1400 years ago to Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) through angel Gabriel. There are several scientific facts in the Quran. The facts that we regard as the ‘truth’ now were not evident at that time. It is not possible to explicate all of these in a brief essay but I have identified some which are summarized below.
- The Expansion of the Universe
And it is We who have built the universe with Our creative power and keep expanding it (The holy Quran, Chapter 51 Verses 47).
It was discovered in the last century that the universe is not static in size but is constantly expanding. This was stated in the Quran centuries before the invention of the telescope and the advent of space satellites.
- The Mountains Stabilize the Earth
Did We not make the earth a resting place? And the mountains as stakes? (The holy Quran, Chapter 78 Verses 6-7).
It was an ancient belief that the role of mountains was to hold up the sky. However, the Quran states that the mountains act like stakes or pegs, with roots going deep into the earth, which stabilize the earth. This fact became clear only after tectonic research in the 20th century established this as the mountains’ accurate role.
- All Creatures are Created from Water
We made all living things from water, will they not believe? (The holy Quran, Chapter 21 Verse 30).
At the time the Quran was revealed, it was obvious that water is necessary for life. However, it was not known that all living creatures actually consist of water. Now it is a scientifically established fact that cytoplasm, the material an animal cell is made of, contains about 80% water. In the Arabian desert, water being a part of cellular life, is not something anyone could have simply guessed.
- The Orbit of Planets
It is He who created night and day, the sun and the moon, each floating in its orbit. (The holy Quran, Chapter 21 Verse 33)
The Quran explains that Allah has created the planets, astral bodies, the sun and the moon, as well as their paths upon which they travel, and none of them can cross each other’s paths. The day and night are also created by Allah, who has apportioned the rotation of the earth on its axis so that by facing the sun and away from it, day and night follow one another in a precise manner.
We made the sky a protective ceiling. And yet they are turning away from our signs. (The holy Quran, Chapter 21 Verse 32)
It is an established fact that the sky is a barrier that protects and contains the atmosphere of earth without which life would be impossible. The protective layers of gases and vapors protect us from the extremely dangerous rays of the sun, the freezing temperature of space, and retain heat to maintain temperatures which humans can withstand.
- Human Reproduction
The Quran specifies the creation of human in several places. Allah reveals that humans were made out of clay:
He created and began the creation of man from clay (The holy Quran, Chapter 32 Verse 7).
Human reproduction originates from sperm:
He has created man from a sperm-drop (The holy Quran, Chapter 16 Verse 4)
He [man] was created from a fluid, ejected,
Emerging from between the backbone and the ribs (The holy Quran, Chapter 86 Verses 6-7)
Allah also reveals the different stages of development of an embryo before it emerges as a fully formed human baby. In the same verse, He also describes how humans become frail as they get old, and some die young according to the time Allah has ordained for them, and how some return full-circle to a child-like dependency and ignorance in their old age:
We created you from dust, then from a sperm-drop, then from a clinging clot, and then from a lump of flesh, formed and unformed- that We may show you. And We settle in the wombs whom We will for a specified term, then We bring you out as a child, and then [We develop you] that you may reach your [time of] maturity. And among you is he who is taken in [early] death, and among you is he who is returned to the most decrepit [old] age so that he knows, after [once having] knowledge, nothing…. (The holy Quran, Chapter 22 Verse 5).
The foregoing account provides only a few examples of the facts that scientific research and discoveries have proven in the last few decades. Some things could not be known to us without the use of modern technology such as medical scanners and microscopes. It is impossible to imagine that any human, however knowledgeable, could have accurately made such observations. Such a possibility is more remote when we consider that prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) was illiterate and untaught.
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