The five Kalimahs (phrases) facilitate the easy memorizing and learning of Aqeedah (Islamic beliefs). There is no compulsion in Shariah to memorize them. When they came into existence is unknown.

Kalimah Tayyibah (The declaration of faith in Islamic monotheism)

Laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur rasoolullaah

There is none worthy of worship besides Allah, Muhammad [peace be upon him] is the messenger of Allah.

Kalimah Shahaadat (The Muslim testimony of faith in Islamic monotheism)

Ash-hadu an-laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lahoo, wa ash-hadu anna Muhammadan abduhoo wa rasooluh

I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship besides Allah. He is alone. He has no partner, and I bear witness that Muhammad [peace be upon him] is His servant and messenger.

Kalimah Tamjeed (The declaration of the glory of Allah)

Subhaanallaahi wal hamdulillaahi wa laa ilaaha illallaahu wallaahu Akbar, wa laa hawla walaa quwwata illaa billaahil aliyyil adheem

Glory be to Allah. All praise be to Allah. There is none worthy of worship besides Allah and He is the Greatest. There is no power and might except from Allah, the Most High, the Great.

Kalimah Tawheed (The declaration of the Oneness of Allah)

Laa ilaaha illallaahu wahdahoo laa shareeka lah. Lahul mulk, wa lahul hamd, yuhyiy wa yumeet biyadihil khayr wa huwa alaa kulli shay-in qadeer

There is none worthy of worship besides Allah who is alone. He has no partner. For him is the Kingdom, and for Him is all praise. He gives life and causes death. In His hand is all good. And He has power over everything.

Kalimah Radd Kufr (The declaration of the refutation of disbelief and polytheism)

Allaahumma inniy a’oodhu bika min an ushrika bika shay-an wa ana a’alamu bihi wa astaghfiruka lima laa a’alamu bih. Tubtu anhu wa tabarratu minal kufri wash-shirki wal kizbi wal ma’aasi kullihaa aslamtu wa aamantu wa aqoolu laa ilaaha illallaahu Muhammadur rasoolullah

O Allāh! Indeed I seek refuge with You to be saved from all kinds of polytheism which I know about and I beg Your forgiveness for that which I do not know about. I repent from that and I free myself from disbelief and idolatry and all wrong doings and I have accepted Islām, and proclaiming my belief, declare:
None is worthy of worship except Allāh Muhammad [peace be upon him] is the Messenger of Allāh